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    皇都MG淑女之夜【jason19861108.cn】为您提供集团最新官方网站,更高级的VIP服务体验,更多的优惠活动,更快速的存取款时间,专属美女客服一对一服务,赶快注册游戏吧。内蒙古渭谜网络技术有限公司(原宿迁家椒传媒广告有限公司)成立于1999年,占地面积61208平方米,KK手机客户端下载其中生产厂房占地3150平方米,仓库面积占地3054平方米。固定资产8274万元,流动资产4566万元,干部职工共523人,工程技术人员54人。皇都MG淑女之夜——EvolutionLogicandChinasCountermeasuresintheCurrentWorldEconomicCycleByXiaBin,ResearchInstituteofFinance,DRCResearchReport001,ear,theWallStreetfinancialstormsweptacrossallfinancialmarketsaroundtheglobeandtri,thegoalsetattheconferen,andkeepstructuralpricerisesfromturningintooverallinflationInJuly2008,thecentralauthoritiesexplicitlypointedoutthattheprimarytaskformacro-regulationwastoensureasteadyandfairthedirectionofitsmacro-regulationsoswiftlyTnDividendsAcceleratedeconomicglobalizationoverthepastfiveyearsshouldbethestartingpointfor,economicglobalizationsurgedacrosstheworld,withtheglobaltradegrowingatanaverageannualrateof4%andtheratioofaverageglobaltradegrowthtoglobaloutputgrowthrisingfrom10%in1870to20%,globaltradegrewatanaverageannualrateof11%,itsratiotoglobaloutputrosefrom22%toabout42%,%for1870~1913,%s,nitedStates,Canada,scountriesfu,theeconomiesofChina,theformerSovietUnionandsomesocialistcountrie,thesecountriesswitchedtomarketeconomy,,China,IndiaandsomeAsiancountriesaloneaccountedforabouthalfof,theseco,,thedevelopedcountriesintheWestactivelypushedforwardglobaliza,thechangesinthesupplychainsandproductionpatternsenhancedlaborpro,~2002period,%%.Butduringthe2003~2007period,%.Whileeconomicgrowthbecamefaster,pricesbecamelower,%irst,thehighworldeconomicgrowthinthisroundofglobalizationwasmainlydrivenbyAsia,withChina,India,otherAsiancountr,theaverageeconomicgrowthwas8%forAsiaandonly3%fortherestoftheworld,,,itseconomicgrowthwasveryfast,but70%,theUnitedStatesfulfilledalargechunkofconsumptioninworlde,thesustainedhighgrowthoftheworldeconomymeantamarkedimprovementinthelivingstandardsofseveralbil,,wentuptwiceasmuchby2007,,whiletheUnitedStatesandotherdevelopedcountriesmaintainedahighgrowthinconsumption,thedeveatremendouspressureonthedemandforstapleproducts,,whicharosefromthedeepeningglobalizationandtherapidimprovementinthelivingstandardsofseveralbillionpeoplearoundtheworld,w,thepriceswouldnotcontinuetoriseiftheglobtheUnitedStatesattheendoflastyearToanswerthisquestion,weneedtoexaminetheotherendofcommodities–,,,thisroundofeconomicg,"fourlittledragons"and"fourlittletigers"andthepresentChina,,thesecountriesresortedtoarelativelyfixedexchange-ratesystemorthedollar-pegsysteminordertosupporttheirexportindustries,promote,thesecountries,drawingonthelessonsoftheAsianfinancialcrisis,,theAsiancountri,theyhadtofindoutle,thegrowthoftheirnationalcurrencies,aftertheirexportexchangeearningsweresettledbythecentralbanks,producedaheavypressureontheinvestmentdemandandonthepricesofgeneralgoodsandassets....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.’sGrainDemandChinasgrainconsumptioncould,accordingtothepurposeofuse,beclassifiedintofourmaincategories:grainforresidentconsumption,grainusedasfodder,grainusedasseedsandgrainforindustrialuse,,demandforgrainalsoincludesdemandforexport,theneedforchangesandadjustmentofgrainstock,,grainconsumptioncouldalsobedividedinto:generaldemandforgrain,mainlyconsumptionbyordinaryconsumers;demandforqualityandspecialgrain,mainlyusedforgrainconsumptionbyhigh-incomeresidentsandspecialprocessingdemandofenterprises;consumptionofcommoditygrain,thatis,grainconsumedinthecirculationfield,excludinggrainproducedandsoldbythefarmers;andgrainusedasfodder,thatis,,China’sgrainconsumption,atthetimeofasteadyincreaseoftheconsumptionbasefigure,alsodevelopedsuchfeaturesandtrendsastheinter-actionbetweenthequantityandqualityofconsumption,continuingevolutionofconsumptionstructure,continuingincreaseofthe:First,consumptionbyresidentsisdroopingyearbyyear,itsproportioninthetotaldemandisalsodropping,,annualconsumptionofgrainbyurbanresidentsonaveragedroppedfrom95kilograms10yearsago(1995)toabout79kilograms,aper-capitadropofmorethan15kilograms;,el,butbytheresidents’growingdemandformorenutritiousfoodsuchasmeat,poultry,,theconsumptionofediblevegetableoilincreasedbyalargemargin,,in2003,urbanresidents’,,,,,,,;,%,grainconsumptionwasabout20kilogramswhentheyateout,,theconsumptionofgrainusedasfodderincreasedconstantly,,thecountry’svolumeofdemandforgrainusedasfodderwas76milliontons,anditincreasedto128milliontonsin2003,%oranannualgrowthofaboutfivepercentagepoints.。

    ’sGDPGrowthRateandTheirConvergenceandDivergenceAnalysisInthelightofthedivergenceofactualGDPgrowthrateandpotentialgrowthrate,China’seconomicgrowthhaswitnessedshort-term,medium-andlong-termandlong-termendogenousfluctuationswithanaveragerangeof6,,governmentpoliciesandworldeconomicsituationshavedealtmajorexternalshocks,whichthenchangethedirectionofeconomicfluctuationandevenchangethedirectionoftheshort-te,theexternalshconvergenceanddivergenceanalysisWeusethedivergenceoftheactualGDPgrowthratearacteristics:(1)Thepolicyfactorsandaccidentalshocks,theseweretheperiodswhengreatfluctuationsoccurredtoGDPgrowthratesandwhenmajorpolicyadjustmentsweremadeorthecountrywashitbyseriousaccidentalshocks,suchasthe"GreatLeapForward"andthree-yearmajornaturaldisastersfrom1958to1964,andtheAsianfinancialcrisisin1997.(2)ariousperiods,theshortestbeingtwoyearsandthelongestbeingtwelveyears.(3)Thefluctuatt-termpotentialgrowthrates.ByZhaoJinping,ResearchTeamonEconomicTrendAnalysis,ResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelations,~3YearsAreRequiredtoEliminatetheImpactofCreditSqueezeCurrently,,thepressuretestresultoffinancialinstitutionsindicatesthattheleadandiswithinthe,theconfidenceoffinancialmarketshassomewhatpickedup,withtheleadingstockmarketsbeginningtobounceback,,thepossibilitythattherecessionofthereal,theeconomiesinEurope,theUnitedStatesandJapa,icexpectationfrom"continueddrasticdeterioration"to"deteriorationbeginningtoease",,%havingbeenmaterialized,,manyprivatefundsarewillingtoparticipatebecauseanacquisitionframeworkhasbeenformedforgate,therehavebeenconcernsearlierthatthedebtandeconomiccrisishittingsomecountriesinEastandCentralEuropemightburdenthefinantrengthafterthe20-nationLondonconference,thefundingasstabilizehasalsoproduce,SouthKoreaseconomicgrowthinthefirstquarterwasbetterthaninthefourthqua,~,thenonperformingasssexperienceindicatesthataftertheburstofitsbubbleeconomy,ittookabouttwoandcgrowth,theworldeconomicsituationconfrontingthe,thenumberoflocalbankbankruptciesintheUnitedStateshasrisento36sincethebeginningofthisyear,morethanthetotalnumberof25registeredinthewholeyearof2008."Problembanks"are20%,themajorfinan,threebanksinGermanyandSwitzerlandstillhavethehrtotalprofitforthefirsttimeinthefinancialyearendinginMarch,,,21commercialbanksintheUnitedStateswhichhadr%ngEconomiesAreMoreLikelytoBottomoutThisYearInthefirstquarterof2009,%,%%,,theeconomiesintheUnitedStates,%,%%,theleadingdevel,althoughindustrialproductionhasyettoovercomeitsyear-on-yeardecline,%in,thecompositeindexofleadingindicatorsoftheWorldMajorEnterprisesAssociationintheUnitedStatesrose1%,thisindexus,thefinancialmarketsintheUnitedStates,EuropeandJapanallsawtheirlong-terminterestratesrisingsinceApril,,theconsumerconfidenceindexintheUnitedStatespostedasharpriseoverthepreviousmonth,,theeconomicstimuluspackagesofthelead,JaheUnitedStates,%,%%,theprojecti,%,,Japanseconomicdeclinein2009mayshrinkfromtheearlierprojected5%toabout3%.Therefore,wecandeterminethattheeconomicdownturnintheleadingdevelopedcountrieswilleasevisiblyinthesecondandt,creditsqueezeisunlikelytobefundamentall,evenifthedevelopedeconomiesmoveoutofrecession,ages,wecannotruleoutthepossibilitythattheseeconomieswillfallag,theworldeconomywillexperienceaprocessfeaturingalowgrowthrateandatortuousrecoveryinthe2~3yearsfrom2010.10-200米LongGuoqiangCurrently,Chinaisun,theindu,toaccuratelyseizethenewopportunitiesarisingfromglobalizationandtopushforwardtheupgradingofindustrialstructurewhileChinaseconomyisIndustrialUpgradingOverthepasttwodecades,theaccumulatedforeigndirectinvestment(FDI)toChinahasexceededUS$,alargeamountofexport-orien,Chinahasbecometheworld,Chinaneedstocontinuetodev,itisalsoimperativetotransformthecountry,theCPCcentralcommitteehasputforwardtheconceptofscientificdevelopment,alongwiththegoalofcomprehensive,,thetransformationmustbeproceededwithaviewtoelevatingChina,ries(1)Thereisastron,whichhasledtoasurgeinurbaninfrastructureconstructionandhasinturnboostedastrongdemandfortheheavyandchemicalindustriessuchasironsteel,cement,sconsumptionstructurepromptedbytheriseinpercapitaincome,whichhaspushedupthedemandforautomobileandhousestoanewlevel,wh,,petrochemicals,machineryandchemicals,therehavebeenmoreandmorecasesofmergersandacquisitions(MAs),theChinesegovernmenthas,forthefirsttimeinhistory,promulgatedrelevantregulationsinordertocreateabettersystematicenvironmentfortransnationalMAs.(2)Massiveexport-orienteda,foreigninvestorshavemassively,ahugeassemblycapacityhasbeenformed,whic,moreandmoreupstreamsparepartshavebeenproducedinChina,leadingtotheform,this"importsubstitute"iscompletedundertheconditionsofopeningtotheoutsideworld,whichwillresultinacontinuo(1)RDinternationalizationandits"spillovereffect".RDinternationalic:(UNCTAD)conductedasur,eachtransnationalcorporationspentanaverage28%Dinstitutionsin1985,,atotalof375foreignc~1990period,thenumberoftheovers%,%.ThethirdmanifestationofRDglobalizationisagro1995bytheworldslargesttransnationalcorporations,%,theNetherlands,Belgium,SwitzerlandandotherEuropeancountries,over50%ofthepatentapplicatiiesadoptedbytransnationalcorporationstoc,theadvanceininformationtechnologyandthemodulizationofRDactivitieshavemadeitpo,conductingoversea,astheseactivitiesareclosertothemarketsofthehostcountries,transnationalcorporationscanincreasetherelevanceoftheircorpo,theycantakeadvantageofthelow-costRDresourcesandespeciallythehumanr,theyaremoreconsistentwiththepoliciesofthehostcountriesa,at,theappealoftheChinesemarketwillbeincreasinglystrongerandmoretransnati,theRDinstitutionsoftransnationalcorporationscanproducea"spillovereffect"onthehostcountries,mainlythroughthemechanismsofdemonstration,themovementofemployeesandinformation,cooperation,gy,effectsisamajortopicfordevelopingcountriesinenhancingtheirinnovationcapacity.(2)Globalizationhasprovidednumerousop,theycanestablishRDins,theycanacquireoverseasRDinstitutionsortechnology,,theycantakeadvantageofoverseasventureinvestmentfundsandc(1)T,theserviceindus%~2003period,theserviceindustryattractedUS$461billionofforeigninvestment,accountingfor66%productionservicesectors,includingbusinessservice(29%),financialservice(25%),transport/warehousing/communications(16%),andtrade(11%).Inaddition,transnationalcorporationshavebegunestablishicountrieswillgreatlyraisetheoverallleveloftheserviceindustryindevelopingcountriesthroughthemechanismsofdemonstration,competitionandmovementofhumanresources....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,:WorldInvestmentReport2001:PromotingLinkages,ChinaFinancialPublishingHouse,2002,:WorldInvestmentReport2005,。

    盛大手游平台手机客户端——AKeynoteSpeechatChinaDevelopmentForum2009ZhangYutaiPresidentofDRCFirstofall,onbehalfoftheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilpleaseallowmetoexpressmywarmwelcnasreformanddevelopment,ardthesemeetings,theyhavebecomemajoreventscatchingpeople,infaceoftheinternationalfinancialcrisisrarelyseeninthepast,wehaveselectedChinasReformandDevelopm,impactsandtrendshiswhirlpool,theseriouscrisisofthefinancialsystemandtherecessionoftndtheirexchangeratesdroppingsharply,exportearningsandfisc,,Chinaasadevelopingcountrywithitsexportdependencyexceeding30%hasseenitsexpo,Chinasexporthaspostedanegativegrowthforseveralmonthsrunningandthishasspreadrapidlytotherelatedindustries,,srealeconomy,,theChinesegovernmenthasadjustedthemacro-eco,theChinesegovernmentredefinedtheprimarygoalformacro-economicregulationas"ensuringgrowthandcontrollingprices"insteadof"preventingoverheatingandinflation",thegovernmentfurtherredefinedtheprimarymacro-regulatorytaskaspreventinganexcessivelyfastslidein,iti,someeconomicindicatorshaveshownpositivechangesrtherproducemajosimplementationofthetwo-year4-trillion-yuaninvestmentstimuluspackage,ourpreliminaryestimateisthatitwilldriveupChina~tionplanfor10majorindustriesareadded,Chinawillbeabletoachievethe8%,wehaveputmoreemphasisonincreasingthecoordinatenessofeconomicgrowth,enhancingthequalityandefficiencyofeconomicgrowthandpromotingtheoptimizationandupgradingofeconomicstructuresoastobringmor,wecouldclaimthatourpoliciesarehighlysuccessfulevenifthisyearseconomicgrowthfluctuatesaround8%.Inthefinalanalysis,thedecisionoftheChinesegovernmenttotake"ensuringgrowth"astheprimarytasktocopewiththecrisisisdesignedtoboostemployment,,,,ourpressingtastforsmallandmicroenterprises,encouragebusinesscreationtoboostemployment,supportthedevelopmentoflabor-intensiveenterprises,improvethesystemsonjobtrainingandunemploymentsecurity,,wemustcurebothsymptomsandroot-causes,combineshort-termmeasureswithlong-termones,pushforwardstructuraloptimizationandindustrialupgrading,andtakseconomicgrowthhasbeenover-dependentonfundinputandmaterialconsumption,consumptionhasfailedtogiveasufficientpushtoeconomicgrowth,thecontributionoftechnologicalinnovationtoeconomicgrowthhasbeenfairlylow,agriculturalfoundationhasbeenweak,,theChinesegovernmentemphasizedthattheshort-t,greateffortsshouldbemadetosolvethestructuralcontradictionsineconomicgrowth,expandthedomesticdemandandespeciallytheconsumerdemand,givestrongsupporttotechnologicaladvance,,greaterattentionshouldbepaidtotheprojectsconcerningthepeopleslife,suchassubsidizedhousing,education,health,cultureand,environmentalprotectionande,Chinashouldintensifytheconstructionofrailway,expressway,farmland,watercontrolandotherkeyinfrastructureprojectssoastoincreasethestayingpowerforalong-termdevelopment....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByDengYusong,InstituteofMarketEconomy,DevelopmentResearchCenter(DRC)ResearchReportNo023,er2008,tocopewiththeinternationalfinancialcrisisandthedrasticdeclineofsalesonchinasdomesticrealestatemarket,theGeneralOfficeoftheStateCouncilunveiledtheOpinionsonPromotingtheSoundDevelopmentoftheRealEstateMarketandcarriedoutfastimesincetheimplementationofthepolicies,,,%,,thesalestoconstructionratioofcommercialhousing1c,thesalestoconstructionratioremainedaround62%inChina,the,withtherapidincreaseofthesalesvolume,during2005-2007,thesalestoconstructionratiowentupto80%orsoandthepricerisebecamedrastic,,asreductionofsalesofcommercialhousingwidenedmonthbymonthandtheareaunderconstructioncontinuedtoincreaserapidly,,%,andthenationw,withtherapidincreaseofthesalesvolumeofcommercialhousing,,%,beingslightlyhigherthanthepeakvalueduring2005-2007,suggestingtheappearanceofaerapidincreaseofthesalesofcommercialhousing,thehousingsalespricesin70largeandmedium-sizedcitiesacrossthecountrywitnessedapositivegrowthsinceMarch2009ascomparedtopreviousperiods,%inDecember,beingthehighestsince2008;inJune,thehousingpricesturnedfromnegativetopositivefromayearearlier,%inDecember,yearonyear,,in2009,theaveragehousingpriceamountedto4,500yuan/M2,upby900yuan/M2ascomparedtothatof2008,,citieswhereriseofpricesofnewly-builthomeshasexceededthenationalaveragemainlyincludesuchfirst-tiercitiesasShenzhen,Hangzhou,,thehousingprice-to-incomeratio,theprice-to-rentratioandthehousingaffordabilityinsomecitieslikeBeiji,atpresentthehousingprice-to-incomeratioinBeijingisbeingover50%higherthantheratiorecordedduring1998-2006,,seofhousingpricesandtherapidincreaseofthesalesvolumehavegivenrisetothecontinuousincreaseof,,%,,%,yearonyear;theaccumulativerateofincreaseofthehousingareaunderconstructionth,%fromayearago.ByHouYongzhiSunZhiyan,Departm,2008Theoilandgaspriceshavestayedatahighlevelinrecentyears,whichhves,,,whileexperiencingswiftindustrializationandurbanization,,Chinabadlyneedstospeedupthetransformationofthemodeofdevelopmentforitsoilandgasindustrysothatitcanrealizeanunconventional,nasoilandga,therelevantChineseenterprisesareneitherlargeinscaleandnorstrongincompakenedduetothechangeinthecompetitionsituationandhavefoundthemselv,oilandgashavebecomeChinassecondmajorenergy,,,ocialdevelopment,Chinamustcontinuetoexpandthescaleofthisindustryandforcethisindustrytoformnewcuttingedgesandboostitscorecompetitivenesssothattheindustrycancat,mostoftheoilenterprisesarebesetwithahostofseriousproblems:thecontinuousriseinthedegreeofexplorationanddevelopmentoftheoilandgasbasinshasresultedinacontinuousincreaseinthecostofproduction,agrowinglyshortercycleofdevelopmentofoilrefineryandnewoilandchemicalproducts,andarapiddevelopmentofthehigh-tech,,ltinationaloilcompanies,over80%oftheadvancedoilandpetrocindustrybyimportingtechnologiesfromothercountries,,akeystepforChinatoexpandtheindustrialscaleandincreasethecorecompetitivenessistorapidlyenhan,breakthroughsmnhanceitscapacityforintegratingthecoeavyinvestment,highrisk,longcycleofreturnandhighuncertaintyandastheresearchanddevelopmentinthisfieldishighlyexternally-related,abreakthrough,oncemade,canacceleratethetechnologicalupgradingofoneorseveralindustri,theenterprisesarenotsoenthusiasticabouttheresearchanddevelopmentinthagesandoccupyimportantpositionsthatcann,ChinashouldrelyonPetroChina,Sinopec,CNOOCandotherlargestate-o,ChinashouldrationallyarrangetheownershipofgeneraltechnologiesandgenerictechnologiesandpromotetechnologysharingamongthedomesticenterprisesinthesameindustryinordertoenhancetheoverallcompetitivenessofChina,Chinashouldencouragethedomesticenterprisestoformalliancesfor"pre-competitionresearchanddevelopment".Byformingsuchalliances,institutionsandplatformsforlong-termandstablejointdevelopmentcanbeestablishedandclosecooperationbetweentheenterprisesinthesameindustrycanbestrengthenedinthefie,Chinashouldformulatemorerelevantpolicies,inlightoftheeconomicandtechnologicalcharacteristicsoftheoilandgasindustryandtheuniquefeaturesoftheinternationalcompetition,,thestateshouldintroducecorporate-orientedfinancialandtaxpolicies,especiallythestimulationpolicies,intheupstreamareaofprospectinganddevelopmenttechnologies,andgiveprioritysupporttothenationaloilenterprisestoinnovatetechnologiesthatcanboostexploration,developmentandextractionrate,andinparticulartodeve,Chinashouldstrengthenthemanagementroductsandtechnologies(mainlyatthedownstreamoftheoilandgasindustry),Chinashouldnotonlyintroducepoliciesthatofferfinancialandtaxincentivestoenterprisesbutalsointroducemoreconsumer-orientedstimulationpoliciesinlightofthestrategicrequirementsofthecountrysenergypoliciessothatrationalconsumptionwillguidetheenterprisestoinnovatethetechnologiesforcleanandrenewableenergyproducts,enhancetheuseefficiencyofoilproductsandprovideotherindustrieswithevencleanerenergies.皇都MG淑女之夜重合同守信誉企业市级明星企业,Chart1Theoveralljudgmentofenterpriseoperatorsovermacroeconomyfrom2001to2006(%)Thesurveyfindsthattheoverheatedeconomywassomewhatcooleddownin2,theeconomywasheatedupin2006asthecountryenteredthefirstyearofthe11thFi,coal,power,,%ofthesurveyedbelievedthatpetroleumshortagewas"evenmoreserious".Morethanhalfofthembelievedthatlandshortagewas"moreserious".Coalsupplywasbelievedto"tendtobebetterthan2005",butthosechose"moreserious"areover10%morethanthosewhobelievedit"tendedtobeeased".Likethepreviousyears,mostenterpriseoperatorsbelievedthattherailwaytransportshortage"didnotchangemuch".Iti,%ofthesurveyrespondentsbelievedthatthepowersupply"tendedtoimprove",;%believedthatthesupplyofsteel"tendedtoimprove."ndisinadequateThequestionnairesshowthatin2006,theinvestmentdemandfromthegovernmentsandprivatesectorsandexportdemandreachedthehighestlevelinthepastsixyears,,%oftherespondentsbelievedthatthegovernmentinvestmentdemandwas"verystrong"or"fairlystrong".Thosewhobelievedthatprivateinvestmentwas"verystrong"or"fairlystrong"%.Intermsofexportdemand,nearlyhalfofthesurveyedbelievedthatexportdemandwas"fairlystrong"or"verystrong".Ontheexportsituationsoftheirenterprises,41%believedthatenterprises"increased"exports;%"reduced",%believedthatthedemandwas"notsufficient"or"seriouslyinadequate","fairlystrong"or"verystrong".Thequestionnairesfindthattheconsumptionrosesteadily,,%ofthesurveyedbelievedthatthecapacitysurplusexistedintheirsector,butitwasnotserious,%,thecapacitysurplusproblemwasseriousintextile,%%.Thatistosay,nearly23%,%oftheenterprisescapacityutilizationislessthan75%;%andmorethan90%%and23%,pharmaceuticals,transportequipment,instruments,papermaking,plastics,%ofthemhavelessthanthree-fourthsofcapacityutilization....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------*Thisisafollow-upreportofthe"SurveyonChineseEnterpriseOperatorsquestionnaires2006".ByGuoJianjunResearchReportNo202,2006ThenationaleconomyandsocialdevelopmentinChinahavemadegreatprogresssincereformandopeningup,,theconstructionofpublicinfraststriesandurbanareas,theurban-ruralandinter-regionaleconomicdisparitieshavebeenwidenedfurtheoftheconstructionofruralpublicserviceshavebecomeprominentproblemsaffectingChina’,speedingupnewcountrysideconstruction,promotingchangeingovernmentfunctions,shiftinggovernment’spublicserviceresourcesandfunctionstotheruralareasandstrivingforcoordinatedurban-ruraldevelopmentareofutmost,immediateandfar-reachingsignificancestosolvetheissuesregardingagriculture,countrysideandpeasantsandtorealSupplySincethebeginningofthe10thFive-YearPlan,thestatehascontinuouslyincreasedinputsforruralinfrastruc,,,theconstr,,rigationfacilities,,,theacreageofcultivatedlandhasbeenshrinkingyearafteryear,thequalityofcultivatedlandhasbeendeteriorating,dstableyields,andtheremaining65percentcanonlygivelowandaverageyieldsduetodrought,sloping,impoverishment,flood,salinization,,soilerosiondestroyedmorethan40millionmuofcultivatedland,,,desertificationandalkalizationhasreached135millionhectares,,thetechnologicalsupportforagricunt,,theratiosofmechanicalploughing,,,theratiosofmechanicallyharvestingforriceandcorn,thetwomaingrainvarieties,,thefundingisinsufficientandthetechnicalforceisnotstable,theresul,,thegrass-rootsepidemicpreventionforcesareveryweak:someinfrastructurefacilitiesareoutdated,thesub-stationsareshabbyandpoor-equipped,andaconsiderablenumberoftownshipveterinarystationsdonothavethenecessaryinstruments,,epidemicpreventionremainsatthelevelofsensualinspect,,quantity,convenienceandsupplyguarantee,morethan30,,morethan50millionpeoplearedrinkingthewaterwhosefluorineandarseniccontentsexceedthenationalhygienicstandardsfordomesticanddrinkingwater;nearly40millionaredrinkingbitterandsaltywater;130millionpeoplearedrinkingthewaterwhosemicroorganismcon,morethan90million,’,,000ruraltownshipsand650,000administrativevillagesnationwide,nearly100townshipsand40,000villageshavenoaccesstopublicroadsandnearly10,000townshipsandover300,,thepowerfacilitiesinthevastrural,20millionruralpeoplestillhavenoaccesstoelectricity,andaconsiderablepartoftheruralareasstilldithasbecomea"shortleg"First,therural,,,,,therewere45,000townshiphospitalswith670,000bedsand699,,805,62,000and105,,,sternregionshave33percentoftheirhousesinashabbystateand80percentofthetownshiphospit,,outofthecountry’s38,240townships,23,678neededtobuildorrenovatetheirculturalstationsandmorethan23,000townshipshadnocultursarenotedfornarrowspace,disrepair,outdatedfacilities,andlackofinstrumentsandequipment.ZhangChenghui,ChenDaofu,(1)OpeningpolicyonmarketaccesstoforeigninstitutionsWhenjoiningtheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO),Chinamadecommitmentsinfiveareasincludingformofincorporation,geographicscope,businessscope,nstitutionsinChinaintheformofjoint-venturecompaniesbutwouldnotbeallowedtohavemorethan50%equityholding;foreignnon-lifeinsurancecompanieswouldbeallowedtoestablishbranches,joint-venturecompaniesandwholly-ownedsubsidiarycompanies.—Thegeographicrestriction,whichhadlimitedforeigninsurancecompaniestoShanghai,Guangzhou,Dalian,ShenzhenandFushanbeforeChinasWTOaccession,,foreigninsurancecompanieswouldbeallowedtoestablishsubsidiariesinanypartofChina.—Withregardtobusinessscope,foreignlifeinsurancecompanies,whichhadbeenlimitedtooperatinglifeinsurancebusinessforforeignersandforChinesewhopersonallypaidpremiums,wouldbeallowedtoprovidepersonallifeinsuranceservice,healthinsurance,groupinsuranceandpension/,whichhadbeenlimitedtooperatingpropertyinsurancebusinessforoverseasenterprisesandoperatingpropertyinsuranceandrelatedliabilityinsurance,creditinsurance,masterpolicyandmajorcommercialinsuranceforforeign-investedenterprisesinChina,wouldbeallowedtooperateallinsurancebusinessesexceptmandatoryinsurancelines(third-partyliabilityinsuranceformotorvehiclesandliabilityinsuranceforthedriversandcarriersofcommercialtransportvehicles).—Foreignreinsurancecompanieswouldbesubjecttoneithertherestrictionontheformofincorporationnortherestrictionongeographiclocationandtherestrictiononthenumberofbusinesslicenses.—Withregardtotheconditionsofincorporation,foreigninsuranceinstitu$200millionintotalassets,higherthanthe10-million-yuanpaid-upcapitalrequiredforaChinesecompany.—Withregardtothequalificationofforeignshareholders,theywouldhavetomeettherequirementsoftotalassetsandbusinesshistory(ashareholdermusthaveoperatedinsurancebusinessformorethan30years,itstotalassetsattheendoftheyearbeforeincorporationapplicationshouldnotbelessthanUS$5billion,andtheapplicanthashadarepresentativeofficeinChinaformorethantwoyears).TheinsuranceindustryhasthesamerequirementforforeigncapitalparticipationinChineseinsurancecompaniesasthebankingindustrydoes,namelytheinvestmentinaChinesefinancialinstitutionbyasingleoverseasfinancialinstitutionshouldnotexceed20%andthetotalshareholdingbyforeigncapitalshouldnotexceed25%.—The20%mandatorycedingtoaChinesereinsurancecompanyatthetimewhenChinajoinedtheWTOwouldbelifted.(2)OpeningpolicyonthecontrolofoperationalactivitiesofinsurancecompaniesWithregardtothecontrolovertheoperationalactivitiesofinsurancecompanies,foreigncompaniesarecurre:—,thebasictermsandpremiumratesofmajorcommercialieterms,ndapprovingthetermsandpremiumratesofmandatoryinsurance,guaranteedinsurancewithaperiodofmorethanoneyear,,%orlower.—,treasurybondsandfinancialbonds,thecommissionalsoallowedinsurancefundstoinvestincorporatebonds,securitiesinvestmentfundsanddirectlyinvestinstockmarkets,,itraisedtheratioofinvestinginsuranceassetsinstockmarketsfrom5%to10%ofthetotalassets,allowedinsurancecompaniestouse15%oftheirtotalassetsforoverseasinvestment,andexpandedthescopeofoverseasinvestmentfromthefixed-earningcategorytoshares,,thecommissionestablishedarelativelyhighthresholdforhigh-riskinvestmentandencouragedsmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompaniestocarryoutentrustedinvestmentthrought,mostsmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompanieshavenoqualificationfordirectstockinvestmentexceptnineChinese-investedinsuranceassetsmanagementcompaniesandthespecially-approvedAssetManagementCenterofChinaRegionofAmericanInternationalAssuranceCo.,,aninsurancecompanymusthaveatleast10billionyuanintotalassetsandthereforesmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompanies,bothChineseandforeign,aredifficulttoacquirethisqualification.—,ChinaInsuranceRegulatoryCommissionpromulgatedtheInterimRegulationsontheAdministrationoftheMinimumSolvencyandRegulatoryIndicatorsofInsuranceCompanies,thusbeginninganexperimentonsolvencyregulation,whichusedtherelativelysimple,EU-typefixedratiomodel,(1)ForeigncapitalparticipationinChinasinsuranceindustryForeigncapitalparticipationinChinasinsuranceindustrywasmainlydoneinthreeforms:branchcompanies,Sino-foreignjoint-venturecompaniesandstrategicinvestors,someforeigncapitalenjoyedthedevelopmentfruitofChinasinsuranceindus,atotalof49foreigninsurancecompaniesfrom15countriesandregionsacrosstheworldhadestablishedatotalof161businessinstitutionsinChina(includingthoseunderpreparation).Table1showsthenumbersofChineseandforeigninsurancecompaniesformallyoperatinginChinasinsurancemarketduringthe2004~%ginChinasInsuranceMarketisofthedatafromACompilationofCost-benefitDataonNationwideFarmProduce2007,(paddy,wheatandcorn)showsthatduring1978~2006ChinasgrainproductionmodelwasbeinggraduallytransformedandthebasicfeaturesofChinasgrain-productioncostwerebecomingmoreandmoresimilartothoseofJapan,SouthKoreaandChina,changesrelatedtoChina,thetraditionalessentialfactorsofproductionsuchasmanpower,animalpowerandfarmmanure,whichusedtomakeupthemajorityofthecostsformaterialsandservices,werebeingrelativelylessandlessusedandthe,moreandmoremodernizedessentialfactorsofproductionrelatedtooil,includingchemicalfertilizer,farmchemical,agriculturalfilmandfarmdiesel,werebeingusedandweregraduallytakingt,thegrain-produc,thenumberofemployedlaborerswasevidentlyreducing,,downabout74%.Giventhef//day,%%.Atthesametime,%%%%%,%.Aslaborforceisneededfortheuseofanimalpowerandfarmmanure,therapidincreaseoflaborcost,asitwere,hasfacilitatedtheacceleratedtransformationofChinasgrainproductionmodelinthecourseofmodernization,,afterthetransformationofthegrainproductionmodel,grainproductionwasbecomingmoreandmoreoil-dependent,namely,itwasbeingtransformedintoan"oil-dependentagriculture".ThetransformationofChinasgrainproductionintoan"oil-dependentagriculture",chemicalfertilizer,farmchemical,agriculturalfilmandfarmdieselbecamerelativelycheapessentialfactorsofproductiontotaketheplaceofsuchproductionfactorsasmanpowerandanimalpowerthat,whentheworldoilsupplygetsstabilizedandtheoilpricesdonotvarymuch,,oncetheoilpriceschangedramatically,theoil-relatedfactorsinChina,,comparedwithChina,asthelaborcostwasrisingfasterinJapan,SouthKoreaandChinasTaiwanProvince,theirgrainproductionbecamemore"oil-dependent".Nevertheless,thelandsizeofJapan,SouthKoreaandChinasTaiwanProvincewasmuchsmallerthanthatofEuropeancountriesandtheUnitedStates,therefore,theirgrain-,althoughChinasgrain-productioncostandpriceshadbecomeoncehigherthantheworldaverageafter1994,~1998,China,,Chinasgrain-produ,astheareaofChinasarablelandaccountsonlyfor8%orsooftheworldtotalandtheChinesepopulationmakesupnearly20%oftheworldtotal,theev,,,edland,plustheever-increasinglaborprices,theess,toensuregrainsafetyandmaintainhighgrainself-sufficiency,Chinasgrain-productioncostandpricesaremuchlikelytobecomeeventuallyhigherthantheworldaveragelevel,likeJapan,SouthKoreaandChinakeyfactorformodernizationhavebecomeanimportantintegralpartofChinasgrain-productioncost,~2006,theproportionofcostsformaterialsandservicespermuinChina,%.Nevertheless,,%,,%,,%,,%.Thetotalcostsforchemicalfertilizer,farmchemical,%% CostsforMaterialsandServicesRelatedtoChinasGrain-productionCost(Unit:yuan/mu)20108月通过ISO9001:2000国际质量管理。

    我公司以ByQinZhongchun,ResearchDepartmentofRuralEconomy,theDRCResearchReportNo116,2009Grainreserves,asthekeystrategicmaterialsofChina,haveplayedanimportantroleinsafeguardingthegrainmarketandsocialstability,,especiallywiththeeffortsmadeinrecentyears,anewgrainreservesystemwithChinesecharacteristicsansGrainReserveSystemEstablishedinthe1950ssincethefoundingofthePeoplesRepublicofChina,Chinasgrainreservesystemhasbeenconstantlyadvanced,reformedandimproved,withthereservecategoriesbeingconstantlyincreased,thestructureandscaleofreservesbeinggraduallyrationalizedandthemanagementofreservesbeingconstantlyenhanced,th:ThenationalemergesRepublic,,Chi,thestatesetapartafractionofgrainsfromthefoodreservestockasthegrainreserves,designatedstoragewarehouses,setasidefundreservementsconcerned,suchastheStatePlanningCommission,,accordingtothethenpoliticalandmilitarysituations,Chinabuiltupthe"506"PCCentralCommitteeandtuntingthedifficultiesingrainsupply,guaranteeingpeopleslivingstandardandsupportingChina,becauseofthesinglenatureofthereservesystemsandowingtothefeaturesofthegraindistributionundertheplannedeconomysystemand,asaresultofthereservesinsmallscaleandtheextensivemanagementofthereserveswhichweremainlystoredandheldbylocalgraindepartmentsintrust,overalongperiodoftime(until1990)aftertheestablishmentofthosesystems,Chinasgrainreservesonlyimpl,duringthatperiodoftime,thegrainreservesystemandthegrainmanagementsystemwerecombinedintoasingleunittobeunderthejurisdictionoftheexclusivemainbody——thestategraindepartment,:Thestatebackupreservesystemwassetuptore,Chinasgrainyieldsgrewbyleapsandbounds,graduallyeasingthelong-term,,thecropharvestswereaccomplishedinthreeconsecutiveyearsof1988,1989and1990,makingithardforfarmerstoselltheirfoodstuffs,s,thecentralgovernmentdecidedtosetupthespecialstategrainreservesystemaimedat"purchasingsurplusfoodgrains,stabilizinggrainproduction,alleviatingcropfailureswithbumperharvestsandstabilizingthemarket",whichwasthefirsttimetosetupthebackupreservesystemspecializedinadjustingmark,ChinasetuptheStateGrainReservesBureautobeinchurchasefoodgrainsonitsbehalf,,malpracticesexistedinsuchareservesystemduringthatperiod:thesystemwasnotwellmadeandthemanagementwasnotproperlyconducted;warehouseswerescattered,makingitinconvenientforsupervision;elyandthequalitywasnotguaranteed,thefoodstuffsgotlostorwentbadorwerenotenoughtodistributeorcouldnotbedistributedasneedaroseandthefoodstuffsdidnotsellwell,:ThecentralgrainreservesystemwassetupandwasputundertheverticalmanagementofChinaGrainReservesCorporation,andtheconstruct,theproblemsexistinginthemanagementofthespecialstategrainreservesnotonlyhamperedtheoperationandmanagementofthecentralgrainreserves,butalsostraigh,1998,theCPCCentralCommitteeandtheStateCouncilmadegreatstrategicdecisionstocarryoutasignificantreformoftheestablishedstategrainres,after1998,ts,with1109depotsbeingbuiltandthetotalreservecapacityreachingmorethan100billionjin(twojinmakeonekilo).In2000,theStateCouncilsetupChinaGrainReservesCorporation(Sinograinforshort).Sinograin,onthebasisoftakingoverthelarge-scalegraindepotsinvestedbythecentralgovernmentandpracticingtheframeworkoftheCorporationanditsdirectlysubordinatedepotsbeingasindependentlegalentitiesandthemanagementexercisedrespectivelybytheCorporation,itsbranchesanditsdirectlysubordinatedepots,carriedouttheverticalmanagementofthemanpower,financial,therelevantcentraldepartmentsmadestrictexaminationsandevaluationsofSinograinspersonnel,assetsanddepotstakenoverbyit,properlyhandledSinograinsirregularaccountingtyofFinance,theNationalDevelopmentandReformCommissionandtheStatentralgrainreservesmainlybylocalgraindepartme,ChinapromulgatedRegulationsonAdministrationofCentralGrainReserves,clarifyingtheplans,storage,use,supervision,inspectionandlegalresponsibilitiesofthecentralgrainreservesandbringingtheoperationofthegrainreservesontothelegaltrack,whichplayedanimportantpartinguaranteeingtheeffectiveoperationofthecentralgrainreservemanagementmechanism,ensuringthesuperiorquality,thegenuineamountandthesafestorageofthegrainreserves,bringingtherolesofthecentralgrainreservesinservingthestatemacro-controlintoeffectiveplayandfacilitatingthelocallegislationworkongrainreserves.、皇都MG淑女之夜用户至上vns威尼斯PT大蓝游戏ByLiuFeng,ResearchTeamon"StudiesonStrategiesandPoliciesofUrbanizationwithChineseCharacteristics"ofDRCResearchReportNo133,2009Urbanclusterisanimportantdevelopmenttrendandthemostprominentregierentscales,formedwithoneormoremajorcitiesasthecoreofregiona,functionallycomplementary,closelylinkedandentirelyoptimized,whichisanadvancedevolutionformandhelpstobetterrealizetheinteractionbelurbanandtownshipsystemcharacterizedbythecoordinateddevelopmentbetweenlarge,medium-andsmall-sizedcitiesandsmalltownshastakenitsinitialshapeinChina,withlargecitiesasthecore,acterizedbyurbanclustenincreasingtrendIn2007,therewere655citiesinChina,,therewere63megalopolis,(Table1),thenumberoflargecitieshaswitnessedanevidentincreaseand,inparticular,themostevidentincreasehasoccurredinthenumberofcitieswithapopulationbetween500,,thenumberofthosewithapopulationofover5millionincreasedfrom2in1997to8in2007andthenumberofbigcitieswithapopulationofover500,,thepopulationstendtoaggregateinbigcitiesinbignumber,andthepopulationgrowthinla,thenumberoflargecitieswithanon-agriculturalpopulationofover500,000reached154,%oftheentirecities,%oftotalnon-agriculturalpopulationsofdistrictsdirectlyundercitiesacrossthecountry;thenumberofmedium-sizedcitieswithapopulationof200,000to500,000reached245,%ofentirecities,%oftotalnon-agriculturalpopulationsofdistrictsdirectlyundercitiesacrossthecountry;thenumberofsmallcitieswithapopulationoflessthan200,000registeredthebiggestproportion,reaching256,%oftheentirecities,whe%oftotalnon-agricu:UrbanPopulationScaleandStructureofChinaLüormandopening-upwasimplemented,Chinahasdeveloped,stepbystep,acomparativelycompleteIPR-relatedlegalsystemandasystemforIPRmanagement,,ascomparedtohundredsofyearsithastakeninthecaseofWesterncountries,,,however,istheex,IPRdevelopmentindifferentregionsandsectorsisunbalanced,andgreatereffoalpracticehasbeendeveloped,andIPRmanagementandlaw-enforcingsystemswithChinesecharacteristicshavebeencreated,althoughsomesupplementarylawsandregulationshavenotbeenworkedoutyetandthemanagementandlaw-enforcingsystemscallforfurtherimprovementSofar,ChinahasdevelopedacomparativelycompletesystemofbasicIPRlaws,alt,forinstance,anyanti-monopolylaws,odification,,lawsareenforcedbybothjudicialandadministrativedepartmeesandsectorsandlotsofdepartmentsinChinaareinvolvedintheundertakinginonewayoranother,thecurrentsystemofmanagementcharacterizedbyisolatedoperationscannotprovidesufficientchannelsforcommu,thecoordinatingroleofpoliciescannotbebroughtintodueplay,andisolatedexerciseofmanagementatmultiplelevelsoftenleadstolegislativeconflicts,oversteppingofmanagementpower,,theChinesesocietyasawholehasnotyetbecomefullyawareofIPRprotectionorcapableoftakingadvantageoftheIPRsystemChineseenterprisesandindustriesarepresentlyexposedtotagesinlaborforceanddevotingconstanteffortstoinnovationcantheseenter,neitherhaveitsenterprisesnoritss,itsenterpriseshavenotyetbecomed,98-99percentofChineseenterpriseshaveneverappliedforanypatents,,mostenterpriseandinstitutionalunitsinChinahavenotyetcompletedtheirIPRmanagementsystems,andarenotcapableo,theymayinfringeupontheintellectualpropertyrightsofothersatwillorunconscientiously,andontheother,theydonotkn,Chineseenterpris,forinstance,igincomesintermsofIPRprotection,itremainsatalowlevelintermsofenforcementofIPRlawsandregulationsandclingstolocalprotectionismtosomeextent(1)Chinahasapproachingthelevelofdevelopedcountrieswhenratedaccordi,Chinastoodaroundthe20thamongthe110countriesintheworldin1993intermsofitsindexofpatentprotectionlevels,,ChinacameneartoGermany,theRepublicofKoreaandJapaninthisfield(Table1).Althoughwhatiscoveredintheindexaremainlycontentsofthelegalsystemtherangeofprotectionandthelaw-enforcingmechanismandtheycannotfullyreflecttheIPRprotectioncapacityofacountry,theyhavereflectedtHanJunResearchReportNo42,RuralmigrantworkersareaspecialconceptduringthetransformationofChinaseconomicsociety,referringtothosewhohaveruralresidencerdtertiaryindustriesincountiesandthetrans-regionalmigrantworkers,whereasruralmigrantworke,plusrurallaborersworkingatthelocaltownshipenterprises,economiesandacceleratingindustrializationandurbanization.contradictionsbetweensupplyanddemandhavebecomemoreandmoreconspicuous  Intermsoftotalnumber,atpresent,,among490millionrurallaborers,,agriculturecallsforabout180millionperenniallaborers,thus,thereareover100millionsurpluslaborersinruralareaswhoaremainlymiddle-a,,thestructuralco%during1985~%%,supplyofskilledtechnicalworkersonChina’,ashortageofgenerallabo,suchashortageevenbecamemoreserious,particularlyinthePearlRiverDeltaarea,thesoutheasternpartofFujianProvinceandthesoutheasternpartofZhejiangP,thetaskforceundertheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheS,municipalitiesandregions,20citiesattheprefecturallevel,57citiesatthecountylevel,166townshipsand2,%ofthevillagesthoughtthatalmostallhealthyandcapableadultlaborerswereoutforwork,%,76%%respectivelyinChina’seastern,%seastern,centralandwesternregions,%,beingthelowest,%,thesecondlowest,%,a,butthrough20-oddyears’incessantlaborshifting,pectiveofanaggregatenumber,instead,weshould"supplyexceedingdemand"to"asurplusyetinadequatesupply"."Surplus"meansthesupplystillexceedsdemandwhenthetotalnumberoflaborersismeasuredbytheworkingtime;whereas"inadequate"meansthesupplyofyounkersandthereturnofruralmigrantworkerstotheirhometownsisobviouslyacceleratingAtendencyshowsthatflowsofrurallaborersareontheincreaseinChinaandtha,orkersAffairsoftheStateCouncilandthetaskforceofResearchDepartmentofRuralEconomyoftheStateCouncilinover100demonstrationcountiesforlabortransferacrossChina,from2000to2006,thenumberofruralmigrantworkersleavingtheircountiesforjobsincreasedby7%annuallyandtheratioofrurallaborersw%.Thenumbe%%nregionstootherprovincesforemploymentsurpassedthenumberofpeoplebeingemployedlocally.Aslabor-intensiveindustriesineconomicallydevelopedcoastalareashavequickenedtheirshifttowardcentralandwesternregions,andasconditionsfordevelopmentincentralandwesternregionshaveimproved,moreandmoreruralmigrantworkersarereturningtotheirhometownsfor100laborservicedemonstrationcounties,thefarmerswhoreturnedtotheirhometownsin2006accountedfor23%oftotalruralmigrantworkersandmadeup10%toffbyrural%ofdedjobopportunitiesto38peopleonaverageandthenumberoftheenterprisersandpeopleemployedbythemaccountedfor18%,wehavepreliminarilyfiguredoutthatthenumberofruralmigrantworkerswhoreturnedtostarttheirownbusinessestotaledabout8million,osewhoreturnhomeandfarmoreruralmigrantworkerschoosetomigratetootherplacesforsurvivalthanthosewhofindjobslocally,anewpatternofruralmigrantworkersemployedinurbanareasorseekingjobsorstartingbusinessesintheirhometownsisbeginningtotakeshape.、DVORLinZeyanLiuLihuiStandardsforidentifyingsci-techinnovationteamsareasigionofidentification,selection,sponsoring,nofsci-techinnovationactivitiesandasignificantmeasureformanagingsci-techinnovation,itisnotonlyrelatedtotheevaluationofindividualsci-techinnovationteams,butisalsoconnectedwiththeconstructionofsci-,inlinewiththetrendofsci-techdevelopment,teamswork-basedscientificinnovationhasbecomethemainstreamofsci-techresearchin,theevaluation,identificationandcultivationofsci-techinnovationteams,,explorationoffeatures,managementmechanismanvationtoteamsinnovation,formulatecriteriaforidentifyingsci-techinnovationteamsthroughpositivestudy,andputforwardpoliciesandrecommendationswithrespecttoidentification,establishment,sSci-techinnovationteamscanbedefinedas"asci-techresearchgroupconsistingofteamsleadersandacertainnumberofsci-techpersonnel,inwhichallmembersmakecreativeachievementswithindependentintellectualrightsthroughlabordivisionandcooperation,undertheguidanceofcommongoalsofsci-techresearchanddevelopment."Takingtheformofteamsmanagement,thetypicalfeaturesofsci-techinnovationteamscanbesummarizedas(1)researchorientationwithdistinctivefeatures,definiteresearchgoalsandgoodsocialreputation;(2)complementaryadvantagesbetweenmembers;(3)mutualrespectandtrustsothatacademicdemocracyandexcellentacademicethicscanbesufficientlyupheld;(4)teamleadershaveexcellentstrategicvisionandcoordinationcapabilities,servingasthemodelforteammemberstofacilitateharmoniousandorderlyoperationofthewholeteams;and(5)capableofproducinginnovationachievementsonsustainablebasis,sinChinaIntheprocessofestablishingsci-techinnovationteamsbysomedomesticauthoritativeagencies,identificationstandardsprimarilyfocusonacademicstatusofteamleaders,innovationofresearchdirectionandinnovativeachievements(Table1).Meanwhile,severalspecialrequirementsareputforwardaccordingtothefeaturesofindividualteamsonthebasis,theNationalNaturalScienceFoundationofChinahasoutlinedspecificrequirementsforeducationalbackgroundsandprofessionaltitlesofteammembers,whiletheMinistryofEducationandtheChineseAcademyofScienceshavemappedbydomesticscientificresearchmanagementorgansandagenciesofvarioustypescanbesummarizedastwocategories,firstly,achievement-basedstandardsforidentification,vationteams,mainlyincludingacademicpapersandworks,patentsofinventions,significantsci-techprojectsparticipatedinandawardsofvarioustypes(includingadmissiontotalentsupportprogram);secondly,circumstantialstandardsforidentification,,researchplatformsandknowledgestorageofsci-techinnovationteams,mainlyincludingtalentstructureandknowledgestructureofteams,scientificresearchinfrastructureandexperimentalcapabilitiesandresearchfees(fairlyprevalentinsomegrass-rootssci-techteams).,fromtheperspectiveofprocessofsci-techinnovationactivities,theabovetwostaticidentificationstandardscannotmeett,someinstitutionsofhigherlearningandscientificresearchagenciesoftenorganizeirrelevantresearchpersonnellackingcooperationbasistoformtemporarysci-techinnovationteamstoapplyforfundsnecessaryforstaticindicators,causi,intheprocessofpre-selectionofexcellentsci-techinnovationteams,dynamicfactorsshallalsobeconsideredinadditiontoinspectionofsuchstaticindicatorsasexistinginnovativecapabilitiesandbasisofsci-techteams,ourDomesticAuthoritativeAgenciesByWuJinglianResearchReportNo195,seconomicgrowthsincethefoundingofthePeoplesRepublichasbeenfollowingthepat,thecontemporaryeconomicdeenturytotheearlystageofgrowt,thh,whichlast,thedevelopedcountriesenteredaperiodofeconomicgrowthcharacter,thedevelopmenteconomicsformednewtheorieaseriesofnegativeeconomicandsocialconsequences,suchastheworseninglivingconditionsoftheworkingclassandtheseriouspollutions,whichwerecalledtheevilsoftheso-called"ManchesterCapitalism".theratioofcapitaltolaborandtheratioofinvariablecapitaltovariablecapital,namelytheorganiccompositionofcapital,theratioofvariablecapital(capitalusedforwagepayment)tivelysurpluspopulation(namelytheunemployedpopulation).Inotherwords,theincomeoftheworkersortheproportionoftheirconsumptionfundsinthenationalincomewouldbecomeincreasinglysmaller,whichinturncausedth,sanalysisofthemodeofeconomicgrowthintheearlyye,whiletheearlyindustrializedcountrieshadallturnedtothemodernmodeofefficiency-drivengrowthinthelate19thcentury,thesocialistcountriesledbytheSovieinthe1920scharacterizedbyaconsciousintroductionoftheearlycapitalismmodeofgrowth,namelythe"lineofsocialistindustrializationgivingprioritytothedevelopmentofheavyindustry".This"lineofsocialistindustrialization"putfo,itwasoutofpracticalneed,theneedthattheSovietUnionsurrsethelegitimacyoftheirlineandsuppresstheinner-partyopponentsinthepartysstrugglesthattheycitedtheexpositionsontheearlygrowthofcapitalismmadebyVlnsectorproducingmeansofproduction,fastinthemeansofproductionsectorproducingconsumergoods,ateinvestmentmadetoensuretheprioritygrowthoftheheavyindustrywasaconsciousapplicationofthe"basicprinciplesofMarxstheoryofreproduction".Stalins"lineofsocialistindustrialization"wasconfirmedbytheSovietCommunistPartyastheonlycorrectlineinthecountrys"campaignagainstrightopportunism",Feldman,aneconomistoftheSovietPlanningCommission,wasauthorizedto,knownastheFeldmanmodel,,includingChina,ismodeofgrowthasfromthelate1950sandtooksomemeasuresinthecourseofreformandopeninguptoalleviateandeliminateitsconsequences,achangeinthemodeofgrowthhasneverbecomofindustrialization,somecountriesandregionsinEas,thesecountriesandregi,,toagreatextent,becausemanycountriesandregionsinEastAsiaadoptedanexport-orientedpolicyandreplacedtheshrinkingdomesticdemandwiththeexportdemandsoastoeasethesl,theexport-orientedpolicyfeaturingtheappropriategovernmentprotectionofnationalenterprisesandthedevaluationofnationalcurrencieswasoftenregardedasoneoftheimportantmagicweaponsforcreatingthe"EastAsianmiracle"eformin1994,Chinaalsosuccessfullyusedthisapproachtoseekavigorousexportgrowthandtosupportasustainedrapideconomicgrowthwiththerobustexportdemand.ByMaMingjie,ResearchOfficeDirectorofDepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearch,sRailwayEquipmentManufacturingIndustrySincethereformandopeningup,theinnovationonChinas(from1980sto1990s):themanufacturingcapacityofenterpriseswasenhancedthroughtechnologyintroductionThemanufacturingcapacityismeanttotransformtechnologicalachievementsintomassproductionsuitedtodesignrequirements,includingtheprogressivenessoftheequipment,thetechnicallevel,theadaptabilityandtheworkmanshipofworkers,thetechnologicaldesignandmanagementability,alcompetenceofente,alarge-scaletechnologyintroductionwascarriedoutforChina,duetoChinasthenpoortechnologicalandindustrialconditions(evenboltsofthesamequalityasthoseofothercountriescouldnotbepurchased)anditslowermanagementability,,theimportoftechnologiesdur(from1990stothebeginningofthe21stcentury):thecapabilityofenterprisestoabsorbandintegratetechnologieswassteppedupDuringthisperiod,byintensifyingRD,theChineseenterprisessu,,theabi,theabilitytodesignthesystems,namely,theabilitytoproperlyhandl,rengthsarethebasisforthesuccessintechnologyintroduction,digestion,absorptionandre-innovationandthattherailspeedaccelerationconductedfo/horlowerwasachieved,therelativelycompleteequipmentmanufacturingsystemwasformed,whichlaidafoundationforfuturetechnologydigestion,absorptionandre-innovation("MadeinChina:TheOnlyWaytoModernizationofChinasRailwayTechnologyandEquipment",IntegrativeTransportation,August,2007).Despitetheconsiderableameliorationoftheabsorptioncapacityoftheenterprisesduringthisperiod,theirtechnicallevelremain,since1980s,,SouthKoreaandCanadaforthemakingofpassengertrains,buthadnotgainedthekeytechnologyforthemakingofCRHElectricMultipleUnitof200km/ofthesafetyanddependabilityofbogie,convertingandtractiontechniquesandbrakingsystem,(from2003tillnow):digestion,absorptionandre-innovationcharacterizedbyintegrationinnovationThisperiodwasma,theimportedtechnologiesweretransformedtoadapttoChina,thedesigningoftheElectricMultipleUnitwascarriedoutjointlywiththeforeignpartnersattheverybeginningofthetechnologyintroductiontosuittheproductbettertoChina,(hereinafterreferredtoas“ChangchunRV”),,there-innovationwasreflectedbythetechnologicalupgradingofacceleratingthespeedfrom200km/hto300~350km/,transnationalcorporationspossessingthehigh-speedtechnologyof300km/handabovehadbeenAlsthomTransport,Siemens,,unliketheforeign-dominateddesignwhentechnologieswereimported,there-innovationfeaturingtechnologicalupgradingwasmainlydesignedbyChineseenterprises,~350km/handaboveand16electricmultipleunits,markingthemomentwhenChineseenterpriseshavegainedtheabilitytoindependentlydesignandmanufacturehigh-speedtrainsof300~350km/,namely,theself-sustainingstandardsystemforhigh-speedtrainssuitedtoChina,digestionandabsorptionof9keytechnologiesastheleadingfactor,theindustrialchainofRD,designinga,onwhichacompletesetofChinasowntestingandacceptingsystemcanbesetup,includingthetrans,,atpresenttheChineseenterpriseshavemasteredtheinternationaladvasRailwayEquipmentManufacturingIndustry。

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